- Globally, the number of cases of obesity has nearly tripled since 1975.
The body mass index or BMI is a good indicator of overweight and obesity: according to medical criteria, the weight is considered “normal” or “ideal” when the body mass index (BMI) of a male or female is between 18.5 kg/m² and 25 kg/m².
Beyond these criteria, there is no ideal weight for a given size, it is above all a question of reaching a weight in which we feel good and which does not endanger our health: it is called fitness weight. In addition to adopting a balanced diet that allows you to eat healthy and satisfied, as well as to exert yourself by adopting a routine of regular and realistic physical activity, some strategies can be put in place to sustainably maintain a weight that preserves of health problems.
A good strategy is to respect the circadian cycle, which is the internal clock of the human body by eating meals at the best times. Indeed, the rhythm of meals has a direct impact on health and can help synchronize biological clocks or, on the contrary, disrupt them.
Thus, a food distributed over 24 hours desynchronizes the peripheral clocks making it possible to regulate the metabolism, in particular during the night. Nutrition is of great importance in maintaining this rhythm: in mice, regular meals or meals restricted to only part of the day protect against obesity.
According to a study, where researchers compared the weight loss of 80 overweight or obese women aged 18 to 45 who ate the same number of calories, women who ate their largest meal at lunch lost on average 1.3 kg more than those who took their main meal in the evening. After 12 weeks of study, while the group whose main meal was dinner lost 4.3 kg while the group whose main meal was at noon lost more than 5.5 kg while improving sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar
Opting for a balanced lunch as the main meal of the day also helps to avoid snacking in the afternoon. In concrete terms, respecting the body’s clock to organize your meals would be as important as paying attention to the quality of your diet and this is what chrononutrition allows, which invites you to rethink what you eat according to the time of the day.
Fat and protein breakfast
According to the principles of chrononutrition, during the day the body needs energy, but the digestive enzymes are not available at all times of the day. It is therefore necessary to prefer a fatty and protein breakfast, because in the morning insulin is not available to digest foods rich in carbohydrates.
A study has also shown that eating a breakfast rich in protein was associated with lower fat intake and a reduction in daily consumption and hunger, compared to a normal breakfast. Protein may also promote weight loss by decreasing levels of ghrelin, the “hunger hormone” responsible for increased appetite.
A study in 15 men showed that a high-protein breakfast suppressed ghrelin secretion more effectively than a high-carb breakfast. According to the same principles, at snack time it is preferable to consume both carbohydrate and protein foods (nuts and seeds) to break the natural insulin peak which occurs between 4 p.m. and 6 p.m. and which leads to eating sweet and leads to weight gain.
And in the evening, it is necessary to avoid a long digestion and an overload of toxins so it is preferable to favor a light and vegetarian meal.
Exposure to light
Regarding the biological clock, light is also essential for its correct synchronization: exposure to light during the day and darkness during the night allow the biological clock to be synchronized to the 24-hour day.
It is also an ally for maintaining an ideal weight: a study has revealed that exposure to even moderate levels of light at certain times of the day can have an influence on weight. Additionally, exposure to sunlight is also the best way to cover your vitamin D needs which can aid in weight loss and even prevent weight gain.
In one study, 218 obese and overweight women took vitamin D supplements or a placebo for one year. At the end of the study, those who had met their vitamin D requirements had lost an average of 3.2 kg more than those whose blood level of vitamin D was insufficient. Another study followed 4,659 older women for four years and found that higher vitamin D levels were linked to less weight gain…a great reason to enjoy sunny days all the more!
Increase your water consumption
Another simple reflex to put in place: increase your water consumption. Indeed, most studies on the subject have shown that drinking between 1 and 2 liters of water a day can help you lose weight. Drinking water can help increase the number of calories your body burns for at least 60 minutes: drinking 500ml of water leads to a 30% increase in metabolic rate, on average.
Another study found that overweight women who increased their water intake to more than 34 ounces (one liter) per day lost an additional 2 kg in one year, without making any other changes to their diet or lifestyle. their exercise program. What’s more, water can reduce appetite and food intake in some people: a study in 24 older adults showed that drinking 16.9 fluid ounces (500 ml) of water reduced 13 % the number of calories consumed at breakfast.